Relay Trainer

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Example programs

Single instruction counting

This just shows a single instruction loop using the increment and jump if not equal to zero (incjne) instruction.

		org 	0x00
counter		skip	1

		org	0x10
start		incjne	counter, start

Euclid's algorithm

This program finds the greatest common divisor of two numbers using Euclid's algorithm from 300 BC.

; Euclid's algorithm using repeated subtraction

		org	0x00
a		skip	1		; First number
b		skip	1		; Second number
tmp		skip	1		; Tmp variable

		org	0x10
euclid		st	#144, a		; Initialize A
		st	#233, b		; Initialize B
euclop		jeq	b, eucdon	; Done ?
		st	a, tmp
		rsbto	b, tmp		; A - B -> TMP
		jls	tmp, over	; A <= B ?
		rsbto	b, a		; A - B -> A
		jmp	euclop
over		rsbto	a, b		; B - A -> B
		jmp	euclop
eucdon		halt

Fun fact: the longest run-time for Euclid's algorithm occurs when you try to find the GCD of two successive numbers from the Fibonacci sequence. When you do this, Euclid's algorithm runs through the Fibonacci sequence in reverse.

Bit-wise OR

This program computed bit-wise OR, which is an instruction missing from the relay computer

; Compute bitwise OR: Y = Y | X.
		bicto	x, y	; Clear bits in y which are set in x
		addto	x, y	; Add the bits which are set in x into y

Exclusive OR

This program computes Exclusive-OR, which is an instruction missing from the relay computer

; Compute Exclusive-OR: Y = Y ^ X.
; This can be computed as follows : Y + X - 2*(Y & X)
		st	y, tmp
		andto	x, tmp
		lsl	tmp
		addto	x, y
		rsbto	tmp, y


This program multiplies two 8-bit numbers and produces a 16-bit result

	org	0x00
argx	skip	1
argy	skip	1
res_lo	skip	1	; Result low
res_hi	skip	1	; Result high
count	skip	1

	org	0x10
mul	st	#0, res_lo
	st	#0, res_hi
	st	#-8, count
loop	lsl	res_lo
	rol	res_hi
	lsl	argy
	jcc	skip
	addto	argx, res_lo
	adcto	#0, res_hi
skip	incjne	count, loop
mulrtn	jmp	0

; Try it..
	org	0x20
	st	#3, argx
	st	#5, argy
	jsr	mulrtn, mul


This program divides an 8-bit divisor into an 8-bit dividend and produces and 8-bit quotient and 8-bit remainder.

	org	0x00
quotient	skip	1
remainder	skip	1
dividend	skip	1
divisor	skip	1
count	skip	1

	org	0x10
div	clr	remainder
	st	#-8, count
divlop	lsl	dividend		; Shift dividend into remainder one
	rol	remainder		; bit at a time...
	rsbto	divisor, remainder	; Can we subtract divisor now?
	jcc	toomuch			; Branch if not..
	lslo	quotient		; Shift a 1 into quotient
	incjne	count, divlop
	jmp	divrtn
toomuch	addto	divisor, remainder	; Restore..
	lsl	quotient		; Shift a 0 into quotient
	incjne	count, divlop
divrtn	jmp	0

; Try it
	org	0x20
	st	#42, dividend
	st	#5, divisor
	jsr	divrtn, div

Integer square root

; Integer square root

	org	0x00
num	skip	1	; Find square root of this
result	skip	1	; Result ends up here

; Subroutine
	org	0x10
sqrt	st	#0xFF, result
sqrt1	addto	#2, result
	rsbto	result, num
	jcs	sqrt1
	lsr	result
s_done	jmp	0

; Try it
	org	0x20
	st	#144, num
	jsr	s_done, sqrt


The relay computer supports subroutines with the jsr instruction. This instruction saves the next instruction address (the return address) in a specified memory location before jumping to the target address. The idea is to insert the return address into a jump instruction which is executed at the end of the subroutine. When the jump is executed, it will transfer control back to the instruction following the jsr instruction.

; Calling routine calling 'sub'
		jsr	subrtn, sub
; Next instruction to execute after call is complete

; Called subroutine
sub:		. . .		; Do some work
subrtn:		jmp	0	; Return back to caller.  Caller has to insert return address
				; into this jump instruction.

The above method is fast and directly supported, but does not allow recursion. If recursion is needed, then a stack needs to be implemented. Here is one way to do this:

; Calling routine calling 'dest'
		jsr	pushdata, dest
; Next instruction to execute after call is complete

; Called subroutine
dest:		jsr	pushrtn, push	; Save return address on stack
		; Do some work
		jmp	popj		; Return from subroutine

; Helper subroutine which saves return address on stack and then
; jumps to the requested subroutine.
push:		st	pushdata, 0xff	; Save return address in stack
; stack starts at 0xFF
		dec	push		; Decrement stack pointer
pushrtn:	jmp	0		; Jump to subroutine
pushdata:	nop			; Place to save return address

; Helper code which pops return address off stack and jumps to it
popj:		inc	push		; Increment stack pointer
		st	push, readit	; Insert stack pointer into following add instruction
		clr	return		; Clear return, we're going to add to it
readit:		add	return, 0	; Insert return address from stack into following jmp
return:		jmp	0		; Jump to it


Pointer registers can be implemented with self modified code:

; Memory copy subroutine

from_ptr	skip	1	; Address to copy from
to_ptr		skip	1	; Address to copy to
count		skip	1	; No. bytes to copy
tmp		skip	1

; Copy..
memcpy		neg	count	; Negate count so we can use incjne

; Read indirection from a pointer:
loop		st	from_ptr, get_it	; Insert pointer into code
		clr	tmp			; Pre-clear desintation
get_it		add	tmp, 0			; Add target to tmp

; Write indirection to a pointer:
		st	to_ptr, put_it		; Insert pointer into code
put_it		st	tmp, 0			; Store tmp to target

; Increment pointers
		inc	from_ptr
		inc	to_ptr
		incjne	count, loop		; Loop if not done

memcpy_rtn	jmp	0			; Return from subroutine

Hello, world!

This program writes "Hello, world!" to the serial console.

	org	0x00

tmp	skip	1

msg	data	0x48
	data	0x65
	data	0x6C
	data	0x6C
	data	0x6F
	data	0x2C
	data	0x20
	data	0x57
	data	0x6F
	data	0x72
	data	0x6C
	data	0x64
	data	0x21
	data	0x0D
	data	0x0A
	data	0x00

	org	0x20

start	st	#msg, ptr	; Point to message
loop	clr	tmp		; Pre-clear
ptr	add	tmp, 0		; Read from pointer
	jeq	tmp, done	; Jump if end of message
	outc	tmp		; Write character to serial
	inc	ptr		; Increment pointer
	jmp	loop		; Loop...
done	halt

Bubble sort

This example shows the use of pointers.

; Bubble sort

	org	0x00
count	skip	1
flag	skip	1
tmp	skip	1
tmp1	skip	1
tmp2	skip	1

; Some numbers to sort..
dstart	data	5
	data	1
	data	10
	data	12
	data	3
	data	20
	data	4
	data	8

	org	0x20

sort	st	#-(dend-dstart-1), count	; Number of items...
	clr	flag
	st	#dstart, ptr			; Set pointers
	st	#dstart+1, ptr1
; Read items
	clr	tmp
ptr	add	tmp, 0
	clr	tmp1
ptr1	add	tmp1, 0
; Compare them
	st	tmp, tmp2
	rsbto	tmp1, tmp2
	jls	tmp2, noswap	; Branch if already in order
; Swap items
	st	ptr, ptr2	; Copy pointers
	st	ptr1, ptr3
ptr2	st	tmp1, 0
ptr3	st	tmp, 0
; Set flag to indicate we did something
	inc	flag
noswap	inc	ptr		; Advance pointers
	inc	ptr1
	incjne	count, loop	; loop
	jne	flag, sort	; Repeat until sorted

LFSR Random number generator

		org	0
acc		data	1
scratch		skip	1
lut		data	9
count		data	0x80

                org     5
loop		jsr	done, rng
		incjne	count, loop

		org     0x10
rng		st      acc, scratch
		rol     scratch
		rol     scratch
		rol     scratch
		andto   #0x3, scratch
		jeq     scratch, appendone
		dec     scratch
		jeq     scratch, appendzero
		dec     scratch
		jeq     scratch, appendzero

appendone	lslo    acc
		jmp     done

appendzero	lsl     acc
done		jmp     0

Simon-like memory game

; Memory game

		org	0x00
pat_len		skip	1			; Pattern length
rng		skip	1			; Random number generator
count		skip	1			; Counter
delay_count	skip	1
tmp		skip	1
tmp1		skip	1

; Start

done		org	0x0f	; Stop just before start so player can
				; hit run button to play again.
start		st	#0xfd, pat_len		; Initial length
main_loop	jsr	show_rtn, show_pat	; Show pattern
		jsr	read_rtn, read_pat	; Read pattern from user
		jcc	done			; We fail
		dec	pat_len			; Increase length
		jmp	main_loop

; Show pattern to player

show_pat	st	#1, rng
		st	pat_len, count
show_loop	st	rng, tmp
		rol	tmp
		rol	tmp
		rol	tmp
		andto	#3, tmp
		st	#1, tmp1

		jeq	tmp, tdone
tloop		lsl	tmp1
		dec	tmp
		jne	tmp, tloop

tdone		out	tmp1
		jsr	delay_rtn, delay
		out	#0
		jsr	rng_rtn, rng_step
		incjne	count, show_loop
show_rtn	jmp	0

; Delay

delay		st	#0xFA, delay_count
delay_loop	incjne	delay_count, delay_loop
delay_rtn	jmp	0

; Random number generator: rng = rng*49 + 47 = rng * 32 + rng * 16 + rng + 47

rng_step	st	rng, tmp
		lsl	tmp
		lsl	tmp
		lsl	tmp
		lsl	tmp
		addto	tmp, rng
		lsl	tmp
		addto	tmp, rng
		addto	#47, rng
rng_rtn		jmp	0

; Read pattern from player, verifying along the way

read_pat	st	#1, rng
		st	pat_len, count
		inwait	tmp
		jeq	tmp, read_loop
		out	tmp
		st	#0xff, tmp1
cvt_loop	inc	tmp1
		lsr	tmp
		jcc	cvt_loop
		st	rng, tmp
		rol	tmp
		rol	tmp
		rol	tmp
		andto	#3, tmp
		rsbto	tmp1, tmp
		jne	tmp, fail
		out	#0
		jsr	rng_rtn, rng_step
unpress		in	tmp
		jne	tmp, unpress
		incjne	count, read_loop
read_rtn	jmp	0

; Flash all LEDs if player makes a mistake
fail		out	#15
		jsr	delay_rtn, delay
		jsr	delay_rtn, delay
		out	#0
		jmp	read_rtn